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|Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2011: Toward Higher Quality Employment in Asia|
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goal indicators for regional members. The special chapter in this edition—Toward Higher Quality Employment in Asia—measures the quality of employment by the status of employment and/or the ratio of employment in the informal sector.
|Aug 2011||Economy, Regional Cooperation||Books|
|Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2011: Sustaining Dynamism and Inclusive Development|
This edition explores ways the Asia-Pacific region can sustain dynamism and inclusive development in the medium term. It highlights the importance of greater connectivity in infrastructure and transport, and of more investment in the region’s human resources. It also stresses the need to expand and diversify the productive capacity of the region’s least developed countries in order to overcome their structural limitations and take advantage of opportunities arising from globalization.
|May 2011||Regional Cooperation, Economy, Poverty||Books|
|Is the EU-Central Asia Strategy Running Out of Steam?|
The European Union’s (EU) Central Asia Strategy is approaching its fourth anniversary. Although progress has been made in building dialogue and in furthering engagement, the strategy’s limitations are increasingly obvious. This brief argues that the driving force of EU engagement should be based on a closer link between security and development. Engagement in this broad field should be underpinned by a values-based approach that seeks to promote more explicitly reform on human rights, rule of law, governance and democracy.
(Jos Boonstra, Michael Dennison / EU-Central Asia Monitoring)
|May 2011||Regional Cooperation, Economy||Briefs and notes|
|Asian Development Outlook 2011: South-South Economic Links|
This edition focuses on two critical challenges of developing Asia to maintain its inclusive growth in the years ahead. First, the immediate challenge is responding to swelling inflation pressures, which can be complicated by subsequent capital inflows. Second, the region must explore and then foster new sources of growth. The strengthening of ties with developing countries, both in the region and beyond, has much potential.
|Apr 2011||Economy, Regional Cooperation||Books|
|Global Monitoring Report 2011: Improving the Odds of Achieving the MDGs|
This edition reports that two-thirds of developing countries are on track or close to meeting key targets for tackling extreme poverty and hunger. It examines country performance and reveals a diverse, and often hopeful, picture. With improved policies and faster growth, these countries can still achieve the targets in 2015 or soon after.
|Apr 2011||Economy, Poverty||Books|
|World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security, and Development|
This edition examines the changing nature of violence in the 21st century, and underlines the negative impact of repeated cycles of violence on a country or region’s development prospects. It concludes that preventing violence and building peaceful states that respond to the aspirations of their citizens requires strong leadership and concerted national and international efforts.
|Apr 2011||Economy, Poverty||Books|
|World Economic Outlook 2011: Tensions from the Two-Speed Recovery—Unemployment, Commodities, and Capital Flows |
This edition discusses the challenge for most emerging market economies on how to avoid overheating in the face of closing output gaps and higher capital flows. It suggests a twofold response: (i) relying on a combination of fiscal consolidation and higher interest rates to maintain output at potential; and (ii) using macro-prudential tools—including, where needed, capital controls—to avoid increases in systemic risk arising from inflows. Chapter 2 covers CAREC countries. (Foreword and Executive Summary are in Russian and Chinese.)
|Regional Economic Outlook April 2011: Middle East and Central Asia |
This edition takes stock of recent regional economic developments and discusses key policy issues facing the Middle East and Central Asia. In the Caucasus and Central Asia, strong growth continues on the back of higher oil and gas exports and government spending. To sustain this recovery, policy makers need to address rising inflation, respond to social pressures arising from high food prices without threatening fiscal stability, and restore the health of banking systems. (Caucasus and Central Asia Highlights are in Russian and Chinese.)
|Apr 2011||Economy, Poverty||Books|
|Rising Food and Energy Prices in Europe and Central Asia |
This paper presents the possible impact of rising food and fuel prices on Europe and Central Asian countries’ macroeconomic and poverty outcomes. It aims to illustrate the possible short-run consequences of rising prices and the countries that are most likely to be significantly affected, both adversely and positively. At the same time, it notes the importance of medium-term policy and non-policy related factors that could mitigate adverse consequences of commodity price increases.
|Apr 2011||Energy, Economy||Research and reports|
|Azerbaijan: A Cradle of Humanity Embraces Modernity|
This development effectiveness brief features operations of the Asian Development Bank in Azerbaijan that reflect the Government of Azerbaijan’s priorities, including economic diversification beyond the oil sector. The Asian Development Bank’s work in Azerbaijan has focused on promoting inclusive economic growth, as well as supporting regional cooperation efforts.
|Mar 2011||Transport, Energy, Regional Cooperation, Economy||Briefs and notes|
|Kazakhstan: On the Path to Higher Levels of Development|
This development effectiveness brief summarizes the assistance that the Asian Development Bank (ADB) has provided to Kazakhstan. The ADB country partnership strategy for 2011–2014 will support Kazakhstan in going beyond its middle-income country status. ADB will promote inclusive economic growth and competitiveness through complementary public and private sector investments. Further, ADB will consolidate its resources to support synergized investments in energy, transport, finance, and the urban sectors.
|Mar 2011||Transport, Energy, Regional Cooperation, Economy||Briefs and notes|
|Uzbekistan: A Partnership for Growth|
This development effectiveness brief highlights the partnership between the Asian Development Bank and Uzbekistan. The Asian Development Bank has supported Uzbekistan’s efforts toward environmentally sustainable rural development, private sector development, regional transport and transit, and human capital through improving access to water, education, and health services.
|Feb 2011||Transport, Regional Cooperation, Private Sector, Economy||Briefs and notes|
|Infrastructure and Growth in Developing Asia|
This paper presents the state of infrastructure in developing Asian countries. It applies two distinct approaches (growth regressions and growth accounting) to analyze the link between infrastructure, growth, and productivity. The main conclusion is that a number of countries in developing Asia have significantly improved their basic infrastructure endowments in the recent past, and this appears to correlate significantly to good growth performances.
(Stéphane Straub, Akiko Terada-Hagiwara / ADB)
|Jan 2011||Transport, Economy, Energy, Trade Facilitation||Research and reports|
|UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics|
This publication provides essential data for analyzing and measuring world trade, investment, international financial flows and development. Reliable statistical information is often considered the first step during the preparation of recommendations or decision making that countries will commit for many years as they strive to integrate into the world economy and improve the living standards of their citizens.
|Dec 2010||Trade Facilitation, Economy||Books|
|Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2010: Recent Trends and Developments|
This edition (i) discusses recent trends in merchandise trade flows of selected countries and country-groups; (ii) comprehensively analyzes recent trends in commercial services trade in the region, providing an up-to-date breakdown of services trade for different subregions and services sectors; (iii) focuses on recent developments in foreign direct investment (FDI) in and from the region and explains why some economies attract more FDI than others; (iv) estimates the costs of trade for Asia and the Pacific utilizing a new database developed by UNESCAP; (v) details recent developments in regional trade agreements and provides relevant statistics on merchandise trade covered by these agreements; and (vi) gives an overview of protectionist measures that announced or implemented since November 2008.
(Trade and Investment Division / UNESCAP)
|Dec 2010||Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Economy||Books|
|Afghanistan: Modernizing Asia's Crossroads|
This development effectiveness brief focuses on Asian Development Bank (ADB) assistance in Afghanistan. ADB has concentrated its loans and grants in energy, transport, irrigation, agriculture, governance, and finance. ADB has also used private sector support to help invigorate banking, and telecommunications.
|Nov 2010||Transport, Energy, Regional Cooperation, Economy||Briefs and notes|
|Mongolia: A Partnership Against Poverty|
This development effectiveness brief is about the strategy of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in Mongolia that centers on policy and institutional reform, as well as building local capacity. ADB seeks to support inclusive social development through competitive, sustainable, and regionally integrated growth that is closely aligned with the country’s National Development Strategy. ADB plans to be particularly active in promoting good government policies.
|Nov 2010||Transport, Private Sector, Regional Cooperation, Economy||Briefs and notes|
|Trade and Income in Asia: Panel Data Evidence from Instrumental Variable Regression|
This paper derives a Frankel–Romer instrument from a global trade matrix of 157 countries between 1990 and 2007. Instrumental variable regressions assess the relationship between international trade, domestic market potential, and income for developing Asia compared to the world average. The study concludes that, on average, international trade has increased income across trading nations, particularly for countries in developing Asia. Domestic market size, on the other hand, is found to be less relevant in explaining growth in developing Asia, indicating that there is much scope for the region to exploit domestic markets as an additional engine of growth.
(Benno Ferrarini / ADB)
|Nov 2010||Trade Facilitation, Economy||Working papers|
|Paths to 2015: MDG Priorities in Asia and the Pacific-Asia-Pacific MDG Report 2010/11|
This report is Asia and the Pacific’s assessment of progress made in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in 2015. It examines likely outcomes on present trends, identifies some of the weakest areas of performance, and presents priorities for accelerated action in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. It focuses on three areas where increased and sustained policy attention is required: hunger and food security, health and basic services, and basic infrastructure—areas where many of the countries in the region appear to be facing significant challenges.
(ADB, ESCAP, UNDP)
|Nov 2010||Transport, Energy, Poverty, Economy||Research and reports|
|World Economic Outlook October 2010: Recovery, Risk, and Rebalancing |
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) forecasts that the world economy will grow by 4.8% in 2010 before falling back to 4.2% next year, but a sharper global slowdown is unlikely. With the world still trying to bounce back from the global economic crisis, the IMF says that the recovery remains fragile and uneven. Unemployment remains a major economic and social challenge. More than 210 million people across the globe may be unemployed, an increase of more than 30 million since 2007. Chapter 2 covers CAREC countries. (Foreword and Executive Summary in Russian and Chinese)
|Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2010: The Rise of Asia's Middle Class|
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goal indicators for regional members. The special chapter in this edition—The Rise of Asia's Middle Class—looks at the growth and impacts of the region's rapidly expanding middle class, and resulting economic and policy implications.
|Aug 2010||Economy, Regional Cooperation||Books|
|Commodity Prices and Inflation in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia|
This paper looks at a strikingly uniform inflation pattern in the Middle East, North African, and Central Asian countries during 1996–2009, in which inflation fell until about 2000 and then began rising. International fuel prices do not help explain this pattern. Instead, it is mainly explained by past inflation, the strength of the US dollar, US inflation, and—depending on the subset of countries analyzed—monetary and exchange rate policies and nonfuel commodity prices.
(Joseph Crowley / IMF)
|Jun 2010||Economy||Working papers|
|Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia (May 2010) |
This edition reports on the regional implications of global economic developments and presents key policy challenges and recommendations. In the Caucasus and Central Asia, exports have begun to pick up, the decline in remittances appears to be slowing or reversing, and capital inflows have turned positive. For 2010, a recovery across the region is projected as the global economy, and in particular the Russian Federation, picks up speed. (Chapters B1 and B2 in Russian, while Highlights in Chinese.)
(Middle East and Central Asia Department / IMF)
|May 2010||Economy, Finance||Books|
|Global Monitoring Report 2010: The MDGs after the Crisis|
This report aims to answer - How has the world performed in overcoming poverty and fostering human development since the onset of the crisis? – and other critical questions. It highlights lessons from the crisis and presents forecasts about poverty and other key indicators. It covers all regions including Central Asia.
(World Bank, IMF)
|Apr 2010||Poverty, Economy||Books|
|Asian Development Outlook 2010: Macroeconomic Management Beyond the Crisis|
This edition sees developing Asia emerging from the recent crisis and posting a strong recovery in the next 2 years, as a moderate global recovery supports a modest revival in global trade. Investment is expected to remain strong and private consumption is anticipated to improve. Inflation will pick up, but at manageable levels. Beyond the crisis, developing Asia faces the challenge of adjusting its monetary, exchange rate, and fiscal policies to foster macroeconomic stability and sustained growth within the broader direction of a return to prudence and discipline.
|World Economic Outlook April 2010: Rebalancing Growth |
This Outlook reports that the global recovery is proceeding better than expected but at varying speeds—tepidly in many advanced economies and solidly in most emerging and developing economies. World growth is now expected to be 4.25%. Among the advanced economies, the United States is off to a better start than Europe and Japan. Among emerging and developing economies, emerging Asia is leading the recovery, while many emerging European and some Commonwealth of Independent States economies are lagging behind. (Foreword and Executive Summary in Russian and Chinese)
|Ancient Culture, Modern Economy: ADB Projects in Uzbekistan |
This brochure focuses on Uzbekistan, one of the world's cradles of civilization and is home to rich ancient cultures and to the Silk Road, the ancient overland trade route connecting Asia and Europe. Since 1996, the Asian Development Bank-supported programs in the form of $1.29 billion in loans covering transport, energy, water and sanitation, education, and the finance sector have improved people's lives.
|Apr 2010||Transport, Economy||Others|
|Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2010|
This survey - Sustaining Recovery and Dynamism for Inclusive Development - assesses the critical issues, policy challenges, and risks that the region faces in the months ahead as it leads the world economy in recovery from a dire recession. It also outlines the elements of a policy agenda for regaining the region’s dynamism through inclusive and sustainable growth.
|Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2009|
The third edition of the revised Statistical Yearbook is an authoritative reference on the social, economic, and environmental development of Asia and the Pacific since 1990. Through more than 200 key internationally comparable indicators, it compares Asia and the Pacific with the world average and other regions, including Africa, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean and North America. It includes 128 reader-friendly charts and descriptive texts on 30 development topics.
|Mar 2010||Economy, Transport, Energy||Books|
|The Cyclicality of Fiscal Policy in the Middle East and Central Asia:Is the Current Crisis Different?|
This paper analyzes the cyclical properties of fiscal policy in the Middle East and Central Asia during the past 4 decades and explores whether the response during the current global economic crisis is different in 2009. Across a sample of 28 countries, the key finding is that fiscal policy has typically amplified the business cycles and that it has been more procyclical in good times than in bad times.
(Yasser Abdih, Pablo Lopez-Murphy, Agustin Roitman, Ratna Sahay / IMF)
|Mar 2010||Economy||Working papers|
|World Economic Outlook Update: A Policy-Driven, Multispeed Recovery |
This update states that the global recovery is off to a stronger start as economic growth solidified and broadened to advanced economies in the second half of 2009. World output is expected to rise by 4% in 2010, representing an upward revision of the three-fourths percentage point from the October 2009 World Economic Outlook.
|Global Economic Prospects 2010: Crisis, Finance, and Growth|
This report examines the consequences of the crisis for both the short- and medium-term growth prospects of developing countries. It concludes that the crisis and the regulatory reaction to the financial excesses of the preceding several years may have lasting impacts on financial markets, raising borrowing costs and lowering levels of credit and international capital flows. As a result, the rate of growth of potential output in developing countries may be reduced by between 0.2 and 0.7 percentage points annually over the next 5 to 7 years as economies adjust to tighter financial conditions.
|Jan 2010||Economy, Finance||Research and reports|
|The EU Assistance to Central Asia: Back to the Drawing Board?|
European Union (EU) assistance in general and to Central Asia in particular is a complicated, many sided and fairly opaque business. Over a 7-year period, 719 million Euros were to be set aside for assistance to the region through the new EU Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI). This paper aims to shed light on EU assistance as it addresses the 'what', 'where' and 'how' of EU assistance to Central Asian republics, but the 'why' question is beyond the scope of this paper. It concludes with recommendations that apply to EU assistance over the medium and long terms.
(Jos Boonstra, Jacqueline Hale / EU-Central Asia Monitoring)
|Jan 2010||Economy, Regional Cooperation||Working papers|
|Investing Across Borders 2010|
This report provides selected indicators of foreign direct investment regulation in 87 economies – including Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, the People’s Republic of China, Kazakhstan, and the Kyrgyz Republic. It aims to help countries develop more competitive business environments by identifying good practices in investment policy design and implementation by presenting quantitative indicators on the laws, regulations, and practices affecting how foreign companies invest across sectors, start businesses, access industrial land, and arbitrate commercial disputes.
(World Bank Group)
|2010||Economy, Private Sector||Research and reports|
|The Crisis Hits Home: Stress-Testing Households in Europe and Central Asia|
This study seeks to understand the key macroeconomic shocks confronted by Europe and Central Asia and their impact on household welfare. Among these shocks are (i) the global growth slowdown leading to falling export market, (ii) financial deleveraging by major banks and other financial institutions in developed economies, and (iii) the recent commodity price changes. The study also assesses possible strategies to cope with the crisis and manage the adverse social impact.
(Erwin R. Tiongson, Naotaka Sugawara, Victor Sulla, Ashley Taylor, Anna I. Gueorguieva, Victoria Levin, Kalanidhi Subbarao / World Bank)
|Dec 2009||Economy, Poverty||Research and reports|
|Transition and Development (Dec 2009) |
This issue is devoted to "Twenty years of transition and human development," marking the 20th anniversary of the end of communism and of UNDP’s first Human Development Report. It discusses the economic crisis that could push at least 50 million more people living in Eastern Europe and Central Asia into poverty during the next 3-4 years, and the lasting and adverse effects of the crisis for disadvantaged regions and social groups. It also covers other development issues, including the Copenhagen meeting on climate change.
(UNDP and London School of Economics and Political Science)
|How Russia Affects the Neighborhood: Trade, Financial, and Remittance Channels|
This paper tests the extent to which growth in the 11 countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was associated with developments in the Russian Federation, overall, as well as through the trade, financial, and remittance channels over the last decade or so. The results point to the continued existence of economic links between the CIS countries and the Russian Federation, although these links may have altered since the 1998 crisis.
(Fahad Alturki, Jaime Espinosa-Bowen, Nadeem Ilahi / IMF)
|Dec 2009||Regional Cooperation, Economy||Working papers|
|Globalization of Production and the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Asia and the Pacific: Trends and Prospects|
This paper seeks to provide policy-oriented recommendations and practical initiatives that would be useful in the globalization of production and competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). These include (i) implementing a number of focused improvements to the (external) business enabling environments for SMEs, with particular emphasis on logistics systems; (ii) carrying out multiple efforts to improve the sophistication of (internal) operations and business strategies of SMEs; (iii) developing and supporting more enterprise “clusters;’” and (iv) pursuing a number of subregional cooperative actions.
(Trade and Investment Division / UNESCAP)
|Dec 2009||Economy, Private Sector, Regional Cooperation||Research and reports|
|Turmoil at Twenty : Recession, Recovery, and Reform in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union|
This book analyses how transition countries in Europe and Central Asia fell into recession and crisis, why not all of them were equally affected, and whether different policies could have positioned them better to face the crisis. It also examines rescue and stabilization efforts and the role of international collective action; policies for recovery by restructuring bank, corporate, and household debt, and scaling up social safety nets.
(Pradeep Mitra, Marcelo Selowsky, Juan Zalduendo / World Bank)
|Transition Report 2009: Transition in Crisis? |
Twenty years after the fall of communism, the global financial crisis has put the transition region to an unprecedented test. Many countries are suffering severe recessions. This report focuses on the challenges posed by the crisis: both for the countries directly, and for the economic strategies they have followed since the decline of communism.
|Nov 2009||Economy||Research and reports|
|Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia (October 2009) |
The Outlook recognizes that the global economic crisis has taken a toll on the Middle East and Central Asia, but appropriate policy responses have helped mitigate the impact. Countries should continue to support domestic demand to lessen the impact of the crisis and focus on debt sustainability. For low-income countries, higher donor support will be needed to maintain economic development. Across the region, governments should further strengthen financial systems and sustain momentum on structural reforms. (Chapter 3 and Appendix in Russian)
(Middle East and Central Asia Department / IMF)
|Oct 2009||Economy, Finance||Books|
|World Economic Outlook 2009: Sustaining the Recovery |
The Outlook sees global economic growth has turned positive but the recovery is expected to be slow. The key policy requirements remain to restore financial sector health while maintaining supportive macroeconomic policies until the recovery is on a firm footing. Policy makers, however, need to begin preparing for an orderly unwinding of extraordinary levels of public intervention. (Executive Summary in Russian)
|Oct 2009||Economy, Finance||Books|
|Case Study on Aid Effectiveness in Tajikistan|
This case study presents Tajikistan's perspective of, experiences with, and challenges to foreign aid. The objective of the study is to raise awareness about different dimensions of aid fragmentation, volatility and associated costs to help define the way to better coordinate official development assistance and private aid flows in Tajikistan.
(Rustam Aminjanov, Matin Kholmatov, Firuz Kataev / Wolfensohn Center for Development)
|Oct 2009||Economy||Working papers|
|Doing Business 2010: Reforming through Difficult Times|
This report records 287 reforms between June 2008 and May 2009, up 20% from the previous year. It says that Eastern Europe and Central Asia led all regions in the pace of these reforms. The region's 26 of 27 economies reformed regulations to create more opportunity for domestic firms.
(IFC, World Bank / World Bank)
|Sep 2009||Economy, Finance, Private Sector||Research and reports|
|Asian Development Outlook 2009 Update: Broadening Openness of a Resilient Asia|
The Update sees that developing Asia is proving to be more resilient to the global economic slowdown than was expected when the 2009 Outlook was published in March. The region's growth is somewhat stronger for both this year and next than was earlier forecast. The economic expansion for 2009 is projected to come in at 3.9%, up slightly from the March forecast of 3.4%; and the growth projection for 2010 is likewise upgraded to 6.4% from 6.0% in March.
|Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2009: Enterprises in Asia: Fostering Dynamism in SMEs|
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goal indicators for regional members. The special chapter—Enterprises in Asia: Fostering Dynamism in SMEs—looks at the impact of the current global economic crisis on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and discusses how to foster greater dynamism in SMEs once the crisis has played out.
|Aug 2009||Economy, Regional Cooperation||Books|
|Business and Trade Relationships Between the EU and Central Asia|
This paper seeks to assess the state of trade relations between the European Union (EU) and Central Asia (with the exception of energy), the diversity of economic interests of each of the EU member states and of the different EU regions, and industries in which European companies are already well-established. The EU’s commercial involvement in Central Asia enables it to further European goals in the region.
(Sébastien Peyrouse / EU-Central Asia Monitoring)
|Jun 2009||Economy, Regional Cooperation||Working papers|
|Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia (May 2009) |
The global crisis is now affecting the countries in the Middle East and Central Asia, and economic and financial vulnerabilities are rising. The report notes that countries should prepare for the contingency of a prolonged global slowdown by supporting domestic demand for a longer period and strengthening financial systems further. (Executive Summary in Russian)
(Middle East and Central Asia Department / IMF)
|May 2009||Economy, Finance||Books|
|The Global Economic Crisis: Challenges for Developing Asia and ADB's Response|
This paper provides a brief overview of the evolving economic crisis in developing Asia and the Asian Development Bank's (ADB) response. Its sections discuss the main drivers of the crisis in the region and the major impacts on ADB's developing member countries (DMCs), the region's crisis response including actions and reforms already initiated by DMCs, the important policy issues the crisis has raised for developing Asia and summarizes the reforms DMCs should undertake to respond in the short run and to strengthen their resilience to external shocks in the longer term, and ADB's plan to help its DMCs restore sustained growth and social progress.
|Apr 2009||Economy||Research and reports|
|Asian Development Outlook 2009: Rebalancing Asia's Growth|
This is the 21st edition of the annual comprehensive economic report on the developing member economies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). It recommends the rebalancing of economies to endure global downturn.
|Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2009|
This survey - Addressing Triple threats to Development - analyzes how the financial, food/fuel, and climate change challenges have affected Asia and the Pacific and considers ways of addressing them. The convergence of the crises presents an opportunity for the region to reorient economic growth toward a long-term development path that is more inclusive and sustainable. Economies will be able to tackle these challenges best by bolstering national policy actions with key concerted region cooperation initiatives that in turn can serve as building blocks of a more inclusive multilateral system.
|Mar 2009||Economy, Regional Cooperation||Books|
|Eurasian Integration Yearbook 2009|
This publication chronicles regional integration events in 2008. It features three papers on institutional integration and its relation to economic growth, a review of growing cooperation in the financial sector, and an overview of the activities of international and regional development banks in the region.
(Eurasian Development Bank)
|2009||Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Economy||Books|
|Regional Economic Prospects 2009: Europe and Central Asia|
This chapter on Europe and Central Asia of the World Bank's Global Economic Prospects Report 2009: Commodities at the Crossroads highlights the region's recent developments and its diverse performance in 2008 and provides a medium-term outlook.
|Dec 2008||Economy||Research and reports|
|Global Economic Prospects 2009: Commodities at the Crossroads|
This year’s Global Economic Prospects finds the global economy at a crossroads, transitioning from a sustained period of very strong developing country–led growth to one of substantial uncertainty as a financial crisis rooted in high-income countries has shaken financial markets worldwide. Commodity markets too are at a crossroads with the very high prices of 2007 and early 2008 having fallen by more than half in many instances.
|Dec 2008||Economy, Poverty||Research and reports|
|Potential Economic Impact of CAREC Corridor 1b |
This second issue of CAREC Notes presents detailed estimates for economic impacts of a large road corridor project in Kazakhstan. Using a forward-looking general equilibrium assessment model, the author estimates direct and indirect effects of this new transport infrastructure, including trade facilitation, transport cost reduction, and the effects of increased productivity in trade and transport services for sectors using these services intensively.
(David Roland-Holst / ADB)
|Nov 2008||Transport, Economy||Briefs and notes|
|Transition Report 2008: Growth in Transition |
This report presents the main economic and reform developments in EBRD’s countries of operations in 2007 and 2008. It also includes an assessment of how the global financial crisis is affecting the transition in the region. With growth as the special theme, it looks at the roles that education, competition policy, and export structure can play in shaping a country's long-term growth performance, and examines the experience and potential role of industrial policy in the region.
|Nov 2008||Economy||Research and reports|
|Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia (Oct 2008) |
This edition underlines that the region has continued to experience strong growth in 2008, and the short-term outlook is generally favorable. However, inflation has emerged as a key issue, and while the global credit crunch has thus far had a limited impact on regional financial markets, the financial turmoil and slowdown in developed economies could lower growth in the period ahead. (Highlights in Russian)
(Middle East and Central Asia Department / IMF)
|Oct 2008||Economy, Finance||Books|
|World Economic Outlook—Financial Stress, Downturns, and Recoveries (Oct 2008) |
This book looks at the world economy's major downturn in the face of the most dangerous financial shock in mature financial markets since the 1930s. Global growth is projected to slow substantially in 2008 and a modest recovery would only begin later in 2009. Inflation is high, but is expected to moderate. The situation is exceptionally uncertain and subject to considerable downside risks. The immediate policy challenge is to stabilize financial conditions, while nursing economies through a period of slow activity and keeping inflation under control.
|Oct 2008||Finance, Economy||Books|
|Trade Elasticities in the Middle East and Central Asia: What is the Role of Oil?|
This paper examines the potential role a substantial real appreciation of the currencies of oil-exporting countries in the Middle East and Central Asia, could play in moderating these countries' current account surpluses and, in the process, contribute to a narrowing of global imbalances.
(Dalia Hakura, Andreas Billmeier / IMF)
|Sep 2008||Energy, Trade Policy, Economy||Working papers|
|Doing Business in Landlocked Economies 2009: Comparing regulation in 38 countries|
This report analyzes the ease of doing business in 38 landlocked economies. Overall, landlocked economies have an average ranking of 107 out of 181 economies covered by the global Doing Business 2009 report.
(IFC, World Bank)
|Sep 2008||Economy, Finance, Private Sector||Research and reports|
|Asian Development Outlook 2008 Update|
This update to April 2008's publication presents four thematic chapters discussing recent global commodity price rises and their impacts on developing Asia. It suggests that high international commodity prices are here to stay.
|China and Central and Eastern European Countries: Regional Networks, Global Supply Chain, or International Competitors?|
This paper uses a panel data set to investigate whether foreign direct investment (FDI) flows to these two regions are complements, substitutes, or independent of each other. Results suggest that FDI flows are driven by distinct regional production networks (and thus are largely independent of each other) and the development of global supply chains (indicating that FDI flows are complementary).
(K.C. Fung, Iikka Korhonen, Ke Li, Francis Ng / World Bank)
|Aug 2008||Regional Cooperation, Economy||Working papers|
|Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2008: Comparing Poverty Across Countries: The Role of Purchasing Power Parities|
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goal indicators for regional members. The special chapter—Comparing Poverty Across Countries: The Role of Purchasing Power Parities—sheds light on how alternative approaches to compiling purchasing power parities influence internationally comparable estimates of poverty.
|Aug 2008||Economy, Regional Cooperation||Books|
|Credit Growth in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia Region|
This paper discusses the rapid private sector credit growth in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia as a result of strong economic growth, financial deepening, and banks' willingness to explore consumer credit markets.
(Joseph Crowley / IMF)
|Jul 2008||Finance, Economy||Working papers|
|Innovation, Inclusion, and Integration: From Transition to Convergence in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union |
This report proposes that countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union have put the crisis of the 1990s behind them. They need to innovate, include all their citizens in the development of their countries, and integrate with the broader global economy if they want to sustain growth. (Overview in Russian)
(Pradeep Mitra / World Bank)
|Jul 2008||Regional Cooperation, Economy, Poverty||Research and reports|
|Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia (May 2008) |
The Middle East and Central Asia region grew at 6.5% in 2007, marking its best 5-year performance over the past 30 years. So far, the turmoil in international financial markets has had a limited impact on the region, and the short-term outlook remains very favorable. The report reviews recent economic developments, assesses the outlook for the coming year, and discusses key policy challenges. (Highlights in Russian)
(Middle East and Central Asia Department / IMF)
|May 2008||Finance, Economy||Books|
|Unleashing Prosperity: Productivity Growth in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union|
This report integrates an impressive array of data sets to assess the macro, sectoral, and micro underpinnings of productivity growth in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. It builds on aggregate estimates of productivity comparable across countries and over time. It then explores industry and firm-level heterogeneity to understand more clearly the roots of observed aggregate economic performance.
(Asad Alam, Paloma Anos Casero, Faruk Khan, Charles Udomsaph / World Bank)
|May 2008||Economy||Research and reports|
|Joint Study on Developing Euro-Asian Transport Linkages|
The study identifies the main Euro-Asian inland transport routes and the prioritized 230 projects along these routes. It incorporates the development of a Geographic Information System database and maps.
(UNECE, UNESCAP / United Nations)
|Feb 2008||Transport, Economy||Research and reports|
|How Kyrgyzstan has seized Opportunities offered by Central Asia’s Economic Recovery|
This draft background paper for Kyrgyz Republic: Country Economic Memorandum 2008 discusses the integration of the Kyrgyz Republic toward Central Asia and the Russian Federation. It has a much stronger expansion in trade and finance with Central Asian economies, particularly with Kazakhstan, which has become a major source of foreign direct investment.
(Bartlomiej Kaminski / World Bank)
|Feb 2008||Economy, Regional Cooperation||Research and reports|
|Kazakhstan: The Road to Independence - Energy Policy and the Birth of a Nation|
This publication reviews the development and future prospects of independent Kazakhstan and explores its politics and the national economy, with particular attention to the energy sector. It also reviews the country’s oil, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear industries in detail.
(Ariel Cohen / Central Asia–Caucaus Institute and Silk Road Studies Program)
|The Economic Aspects of the Chinese–Central Asia Rapprochement|
This paper analyzes the development of the People’s Republic of China's (PRC) economic engagement with Central Asia. Although the commercial exchanges between the PRC and Central Asia are still in their infancy, they already show a lot of promise and have burgeoned over the last few years: between 2002 and 2005, the volume of trade between the two zones tripled. For landlocked Central Asia, the PRC is thus destined to play a major role in the 21st century in opening up the region.
(Sébastien Peyrous / Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program)
|Sep 2007||Energy, Regional Cooperation, Trade Facilitation, Economy||Research and reports|
|Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2007: Inequality in Asia|
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goal indicators for regional members. The special chapter—Inequality in Asia—discusses widening inequalities in standards of living in developing Asia, despite the fact that Asia is growing at some of the fastest rates in the world. It also voices concern about the poor being bypassed by growth.
|Aug 2007||Economy, Regional Cooperation||Books|
|Fiscal Policy and Economic Growth: Lessons from Eastern Europe and Central Asia |
This study explores public finance policies in the transition countries of Europe and Central Asia and their likely effects on economic growth. It tackles broad questions such as the impact of fiscal deficits, government size, quality of public spending, and structure of taxation on growth, and it explores several key areas of public spending and taxation in detail.
(Cheryl Gray, Tracey Lane, Aristomene Varoudakis (eds.) / World Bank)
|Jul 2007||Economy||Research and reports|
|Migration and Remittances: Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union|
Migration in Eastern Europe and Central Asia is unique and significant: it accounts for one-third of all developing country emigration and the Russian Federation is the second largest immigration country worldwide. This report traces the trends of international migration and remittances in Eastern Europe and Cetnral Asia since the transition and their determinants. The report also looks at international migration policy in the region and how current bilateral migration schemes can be improved.
(Ali Mansoor, Bryce Quillin (eds.) / World Bank)
|Jan 2007||Economy||Research and reports|
|Doing Business 2008: Central Asia|
The fifth in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it, Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 178 economies. This report presents the summary indicators for Central Asia.
|2007||Economy, Finance, Private Sector||Research and reports|
|Beauty Queens and Wallflowers-Currency Maps in the Middle East and Central Asia|
Against the background of the theory of optimum currency areas, the paper analyzes possible sequences for establishing a currency union in the Middle East and Central Asia region.
(Julian Berengaut, Katrin Elborgh-Woytek / IMF)
|Oct 2006||Regional Cooperation, Economy, Finance||Working papers|
|Beyond Transition: Newsletter About Reforming Economies|
The theme of this newsletter is how regional cooperation in Central Asia can help landlocked countries succeed. The articles are about World Trade Organization accession, regional cooperation in trade, economic performance of Central Asian countries, and other sectors such as education and health.
|Oct 2006||Trade Policy, Regional Cooperation, Economy, Poverty||Others|
|Increasing Inequality in Transition Economies: Is There More to Come?|
This paper decomposes changes in inequality, which has in general been increasing in the transition economies of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, both by income source and socioeconomic group, with a view to understanding the determinants of inequality and assessing how it might evolve in the future.
(Pradeep Mitra, Ruslan Yemtsov / International Finance Corporation)
|Sep 2006||Economy||Working papers|
|Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2006: Measuring Policy Effectiveness in Health and Education|
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goal indicators for regional members. The special chapter—Measuring Policy Effectiveness in Health and Education—focuses on the generation and utilization of knowledge for policy making and for enhancing government and stakeholder accountability in the health and education sectors.
|Aug 2006||Economy, Regional Cooperation||Books|
|The Growth-Poverty Nexus: Evidence from Kazakhstan|
This paper examines the extent, dynamics, and distribution of poverty in Kazakhstan during 2001-2004. It quantifies the contributions of growth and redistribution components to overall poverty reduction. The analysis demonstrates that over the period, both the incidence and the depth of poverty have significantly declined, improving the population’s living standards.
(Akram Esanov / ADB Institute)
|Jul 2006||Economy, Poverty||Working papers|
|Central Asia after Fifteen Years of Transition: Growth, Regional Cooperation, and Policy Choices|
This paper presents a coherent and systematic analysis of the collapse and subsequent revival of the Central Asian Republics (CARs) since 1990. The focus is on the pattern of growth and structural change during the cycle of decline and subsequent revival in the CARs, which have yet to be adequately analyzed in the literature on transition.
(Malcolm Dowling, Ganeshan Wignaraja / ADB)
|Jul 2006||Regional Cooperation, Economy||Working papers|
|Economic Cooperation in the Wider Central Asia Region|
This paper aims to (i) to lay out some big issues that affect regional cooperation and development in the wider Central Asia region; and (ii) to analyze in greater detail selected areas where there appear to be good prospects for progress in the short run, and which may help generate momentum and facilitate "breakthroughs" in dealing with more difficult issues.
(William Byrd, Martin Raiser, Anton Dobronogov, Alexander Kitain / World Bank)
|Apr 2006||Regional Cooperation, Economy||Working papers|
|Central Asia: Mapping Future Prospects to 2015 |
This paper considers Central Asia's economic prospects to 2015. It charts recent economic performance, highlighting economic revival. It also synthesizes recent forecasts and constructs scenarios for future economic variables against a constant global background.
(Malcolm Dowling, Ganeshan Wignaraja / ADB)
|Apr 2006||Economy||Working papers|
|Quasi-Fiscal Deficits and Energy Conditionality in Selected CIS Countries|
Quasi-fiscal deficits of public utility companies constitute a significant impediment to efficient resource allocation and endanger macroeconomic stability. This paper presents a simple framework for measuring and monitoring such deficits and highlights their macroeconomic relevance.
(Tapio Saavalainen, Joy ten berge / IMF)
|Feb 2006||Energy, Economy, Finance||Working papers|
|From Disintegration to Reintegration: Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union in International Trade |
This study analyzes the evolution of trade in 27 transition countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. It finds that most countries are better integrated into the global economy today than at any time since the Russian Revolution. To take full advantage of greater liberalization, countries must push ahead more strongly on domestic ("behind-the-border") reforms. (Overview in Russian)
(Harry G. Broadman / World Bank)
|Feb 2006||Economy, Trade Policy||Research and reports|
|The Transit Regime for Landlocked States: International Law and Development Perspectives|
This study reviews the evolution of the regime of landlocked states, with special attention to the link between international law and development. The study provides a detailed historical account of the legal, and to some extent the political, relations of landlocked and transit countries and examines the difficulties all these countries have faced.
(Kishor Uprety / World Bank)
|National Millennium Development Goals: A Framework for Action |
This report charts countries' progress towards achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) adapted to fit local circumstances in Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. It is intended to serve as a platform for integrating these nationally adapted MDGs into country-level poverty alleviation frameworks.
(Jacek Cukrowski (lead) / UNDP)
|2006||Poverty, Economy, Others||Research and reports|
|Asia-Pacific Human Development Report 2006 - Trade on Human Terms: Transforming Trade for Human Development in Asia and the Pacific|
The Report examines from an Asia-Pacific perspective the changes required in the world's trading system, as envisioned in the Global Partnership for Development and the Millennium Development Goals. It proposes a comprehensive development strategy that effectively combines trade liberalization with the promotion of poverty reduction and human development.
|2006||Economy, Poverty, Trade Policy||Research and reports|
|Growth, Poverty and Inequality: Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union |
Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union have witnessed a significant decrease in poverty since the Russian financial crisis of 1998-1999. Almost 40 million people moved out of poverty from 1998 to 2003. This report urges countries to continue with enterprise sector reforms, boost rural growth, promote opportunities in lagging regions, increase access to good quality basic services, and produce better social safety nets especially for the working poor and children. (Overview in Russian)
(Asad Alam, Mamta Murthi, Ruslan Yemtsov, Edmundo Murrugarra, Nora Dudwick, Ellen Hamilton, Erwin Tiongson / World Bank)
|Oct 2005||Economy, Poverty||Research and reports|
|Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2005: Labor Markets in Asia: Promoting Full, Productive, and Decent Employment|
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goal indicators for regional members. The special chapter—Labor Markets in Asia: Promoting Full, Productive, and Decent Employment—highlights the difficulties the region faces in employing its large and growing labor force; and outlines steps that countries should consider in moving toward full, productive, and decent employment.
|Aug 2005||Economy, Regional Cooperation||Books|
|Central Asia in 2015|
This brief highlights the importance of policies in determining the future path of development in the Central Asian Republics (CARs). Based on the three scenarios presented, the findings show that if the region embraces policy reform, regional cooperation and industrial competitiveness, then economic prosperity will be significantly enhanced. (Includes Russian translation)
(CAREC / ADB)
|Jan 2005||Regional Cooperation, Economy||Briefs and notes|
|Analysis of Recent Growth in Low-Income CIS Countries|
This paper analyzes factors that determine recent economic growth in the low-income countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States-Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
(Elena Loukoianova, Anna Unigovskaya / IMF)
|Aug 2004||Economy, Poverty||Working papers|
|Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2004: Poverty in Asia: Measurement, Estimates, and Prospects|
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goal indicators for regional members. The special chapter—Poverty in Asia: Measurement, Estimates, and Prospects—covers the measurement of poverty, which includes conceptual issues involved in measurement and practices that underlie poverty; explores the connections between poverty, growth, and distribution; and Asia’s prospects for reducing poverty.
|Aug 2004||Economy, Regional Cooperation||Books|
|FDI and the Investment Climate in the CIS Countries|
In view of disappointing levels of inward foreign direct investment (FDI), this policy paper examines capital flows into the Commonwealth of Independent States and investigates the main impediments to a more favorable investment climate. Direct investment inflows have generally been related to natural resource extraction or energy transport infrastructure projects, large privatization transactions, and debt–equity swaps to pay for energy supplies.
(Clinton R. Shiells / IMF)
|Nov 2003||Economy||Research and reports|
|Transition and International Integration in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union|
This paper investigates the extent of integration of the transition economies into the world economy. It finds southeastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) trade significantly less with the world economy than the accession countries due to the low quality of economic institutions and the landlocked nature of its countries.
(Ian Babetskii, Oxana Babetskaia-Kukharchuk, Martin Raiser / EBRD)
|Nov 2003||Trade Facilitation, Regional Cooperation, Economy||Working papers|
|Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2003: Education for Global Participation|
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goal indicators for regional members. The special chapter—Education for Global Participation—summarizes key benefits of education for both individuals and national economies; reviews the education status, challenges, and experiences of developing member countries; and analyzes the need for reforms of education and training systems in the globalized economy.
|Aug 2003||Economy, Regional Cooperation||Books|
|Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2002: Population and Human Resource Trends and Challenges|
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goal indicators for regional members. The special chapter—Population and Human Resource Trends and Challenges—offers a broad overview of demographic and human resource trends in the Asia and Pacific region, and considers some possible policy implications these developments have for developing countries in the region.
|Aug 2002||Economy, Regional Cooperation||Books|
|Energy Sector Quasi-Fiscal Activities in the Countries of the Former Soviet Union|
This paper analyses the continuing use of energy sector quasi-fiscal activities to provide large implicit and untargeted subsidies on such activities in former Soviet Union countries, especially in Azerbaijan and Ukraine. These activities disguise the overall size of the government, cause overconsumption and waste, and contribute to macroeconomic imbalances.
(Martin Petri, Gunther Taube, Aleh Tsyvinski / IMF)
|May 2002||Economy, Finance, Energy||Working papers|
|The World Bank in Europe and Central Asia 2002|
With central planning disappearing in the countries of Europe and Central Asia, the 10-year transition to market economy has been challenging. To assist these countries, the World Bank's approach is built on three main pillars: (i) a vibrant private sector underpinned by an efficient and focused public sector; (ii) social development, protection and consultation; and (iii) attention to global issues that affect the region and other parts of the world. This report gives information on the Bank's activities in the region.
|Jan 2002||Economy||Working papers|
|Capacity Building in Economics: Education and Research in Transition Economies|
The development of the institutional capacity to create and evaluate economic policies remains a critical need-and constraint-in most transition economies if they are to complete the successful passage to market economies. This paper presents findings from a comprehensive study assessing the state of economics education and research in East-Central Europe and the former Soviet republics.
(Boris Pleskovic, Anders Aslund, William Bader, Robert Campbell / World Bank)
|Jan 2002||Economy, Capacity Development||Working papers|
|Transition - The First Ten Years: Analysis and Lessons for Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union|
The report looks at the policy and institutional conditions that encourage the growth of new firms in transition economies while imposing financial discipline on the old firms inherited from the socialist past. While emphasizing the importance of market-oriented policy reforms, the report also examines political strategies to push the reform process forward in different transition countries.
|Jan 2002||Economy, Private Sector||Research and reports|
|Nature's Blessing or Nature's Curse: The Political Economy of Transition in Resource-based Economies|
This paper looks back over the first decade of independence of former Soviet republics and draws some lessons from the experience made to date. It focuses on the energy-rich states and contrasts their development to that in the resource-poor countries at the periphery of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
(Akram Esanov, Martin Raiser, Willem Buiter / EBRD)
|Nov 2001||Economy, Energy||Working papers|
|The Russian Financial Crisis and Its Consequences for Central Asia|
This paper reviews the economic conditions in central Asia at the time of the Russian financial crisis of August 1998, the channels by which the crisis was transmitted to the central Asian region, and the policy responses.
(Gonzalo C. Pastor, Tatiana Damjanovic / IMF)
|Oct 2001||Economy||Working papers|
|Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2001: Growth and Change in Asia and the Pacific|
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It attempts to highlight major socioeconomic trends in the Asia–Pacific region, addressing issues connected with data and the strategic choices necessary to improve data availability.
|Aug 2001||Economy, Regional Cooperation||Books|
|Making Transition Work for Everyone: Poverty and Inequality in Europe and Central Asia |
The book brings together the latest findings on the nature and evolution of poverty and inequality in the region. It explores the different responses to this collapse and their implications for poverty and inequality. Incomplete market reforms, high levels of bureaucratic corruption, and the capture of national governments by powerful business elites account for some of the major differences in poverty and inequality outcomes among countries.
|Aug 2000||Poverty, Economy||Books|
|Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2000|
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It includes (i) regional statistical tables, where selected indicators are compared across developing member countries, and (ii) country tables, which detail 1982-1999 annual population, economic and financial statistics of each member country.
|Aug 2000||Economy, Regional Cooperation||Books|
|Returned 106 resources|